Pilotage or Steering is the most widely recognized technique for air route. This technique, the pilot keeps on course by following a progression of milestones on the ground. Ordinarily before take-off, pilot will make pre-flight arranging; the pilot will define a boundary on the aeronautical guide to show the ideal course. Pilot will knows different tourist spots, for example, roadways, railroad tracks, streams, spans. As the pilot flies over every one of milestone, pilot will confirm it on the graph or guide. On the off chance that the plane doesn’t disregard straightforwardly the milestone, the pilot will realize that he needs to address the course.

Route fix airplane position on map by noticing non noticeable land marks. Utilizing compass, the heading to next land imprint or objective. Electronic pilotage is additionally use with the guide of air bone radar. This is called electronic pilotage. The miniature inquiry radar furnished with a PPD (Plan Position Show) planned to territory is utilized for electronic pilotage.

Pilots have different route helps that help them departure, fly, and land securely. One of the main guides is a progression of air course traffic signal, worked all through the world. The greater part of the traffic light purposes a radar screen to ensure every one of the planes in its area are flying in their doled out aviation routes. Carriers convey an extraordinary sort of radar recipient and transmitter called a transponder. It gets a radar signal from control focus and quickly skips it back. At the point when the sign got to the ground, it makes the plane appear on the radar screen.

Pilots have extraordinary techniques for exploring across seas. Three normally utilized strategies are:

Inertial Direction; this framework has PC and other extraordinary gadgets that let pilots know where are the plane found.

LORAN Long Reach Route The plane has hardware for getting extraordinary radio transmissions conveyed persistent from transmitter stations. The signs will show the plane area

GPS Worldwide Situating Framework. is the main framework today ready to show your accurate situation on the earth whenever, anyplace, and any climate? The framework collector on the airplane will gets the signs from satellites all over the planet


• Range is high (50 to 100 km)

• Precise

On the off chance that the ground is apparent the pilot can see the chief highlights on the ground, for example, waterways, shoreline, estuaries, streams and so on. what’s more, fix his situation. Indeed, even around evening time, the light reference points give data about the place of the airplane.


• Route by pilotage is conceivable just under of good perceivability.

• Both the technique for pilotage requires conspicuous highlights in the territory

• Can’t be utilized in the oceanographic districts (it will be pointless over the stretch of ocean assuming there are no island in the field of vision

• Pilotage relies on the accessibility of precise guides of the landscape